The following is a list of recent foreign editions of Ayn Rand's works that we are aware of, although we .. Atlas Zbuntowany (Atlas Shrugged). Atlas Shrugged is a trilogy of American science fiction drama films. The films, based on Ayn Rand's novel Atlas Shrugged, are subtitled. Ayn Rand's Atlas Shrugged; here's my rendition of Dagny Taggart. Ayn Rand . Atlas Shrugged in Polish // Atlas zbuntowany Atlas Shrugged, Ayn Rand, Merlin, .
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Ayn Rand Translations - Download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online. Relação das Atlas Zbuntowany (Atlas Shrugged) Cnota Egoismus ( Virtue. Atlas Shrugged is a novel by Ayn Rand. Rand's fourth and final novel, it was also her Archived (PDF) from the original on October 12, Retrieved . Atlas Shrugged is a trilogy of American science fiction drama films. The films, adaptations of Ayn Rand's novel of the same title, are . Print/export. Create a book · Download as PDF · Printable version.
Some officials execute government policy, such as those who confiscate one state's seed grain to feed the starving citizens of another; others exploit those policies, such as the railroad regulator who illegally sells the railroad's supplies for his own profit. Both use force to take property from the people who produced or earned it. The character Francisco d'Anconia indicates the role of "looters" and "moochers" in relation to money: "So you think that money is the root of all evil?
Have you ever asked what is the root of money? Money is a tool of exchange, which can't exist unless there are goods produced and men able to produce them. Money is not the tool of the moochers, who claim your product by tears, or the looters who take it from you by force. Money is made possible only by the men who produce. Ruddy if a screenplay could focus on the love story, Rand agreed and reportedly said, "That's all it ever was".
Riggenbach adds, "Rand's overall message with regard to science seems clear: the role of science in human life and human society is to provide the knowledge on the basis of which technological advancement and the related improvements in the quality of human life can be realized. But science can fulfill this role only in a society in which human beings are left free to conduct their business as they see fit.
Pierce describes it as a "romantic suspense novel" that is "at least a borderline case" of science fiction. As in other works falling within this genre, a visitor in this case, Dagny arrives at an Utopian Society and is shown around by denizens, who explain in detail how their social institutions work and what is the world view behind these institutions.
It peaked at No. The Economist reported that the year-old novel ranked No. With an attached sales chart, The Economist reported that sales "spikes" of the book seemed to coincide with the release of economic data.
Subsequently, on April 2, , Atlas Shrugged ranked No. Rand scholar Mimi Reisel Gladstein later wrote that "reviewers seemed to vie with each other in a contest to devise the cleverest put-downs"; one called it "execrable claptrap", while another said it showed "remorseless hectoring and prolixity". Is it a nightmare?
Alan Greenspan wrote a letter to The New York Times Book Review, in which he responded to Hicks' claim that "the book was written out of hate" by calling it "a celebration of life and happiness.
Justice is unrelenting. Creative individuals and undeviating purpose and rationality achieve joy and fulfillment. Parasites who persistently avoid either purpose or reason perish as they should. Rand advocated reason as the only means of acquiring knowledge, and rejected faith and religion. She supported rational and ethical egoism, and rejected altruism. In politics, she condemned the initiation of force as immoral, and opposed collectivism and statism as well as anarchism, and instead supported laissez-faire capitalism, which she defined as the system based on recognizing individual rights.
In art, Rand promoted romantic realism.
She was sharply critical of most philosophers and philosophical traditions known to her, except for Aristotle and some Aristotelians, and classical liberals.
Literary critics received Rand's fiction with mixed reviews, and academia generally ignored or rejected her philosophy, though academic interest has increased in recent decades.
The Objectivist movement attempts to spread her ideas, both to the public and in academic settings.
Robert James Bidinotto said, "the titles of the parts and chapters suggest multiple layers of meaning. The three parts, for example, are named in honor of Aristotle's laws of logic Part One is titled 'Non-Contradiction' Part Two, titled 'Either-Or' The government has increasingly extended its control over businesses with increasingly stringent regulations.
The United States also appears to be approaching an economic collapse, with widespread shortages, constant business failures, and severely decreased productivity. Writer Edward Younkins said, "The story may be simultaneously described as anachronistic and timeless.
The pattern of industrial organization appears to be that of the late s-the mood seems to be close to that of the depression-era s. Both the social customs and the level of technology remind one of the s". Many early 20th-century technologies are available, and the steel and railroad industries are especially significant; jet planes are described as a relatively new technology, and television is significantly less influential than radio.
Clearly the Cold War is not going on any more, though there is no reference to how it ended and who emerged as the victor; there is in fact no reference of any kind to the Soviet Union or Russia, nor to World War II. Other countries are mentioned in passing.
Most countries of the world are implied to be organized along vaguely Marxist lines, with references to "People's States" in Europe, South America and India, which are economically supported and sustained by the United States.
There is a reference to a People's State of Germany, which implies that Germany had been united and possibly that the Communist East Germany swallowed the Western one, and a reference to the People's State of Britain offering its Crown Jewels for sale which might imply that the British Monarchy had been abolished. Characters also refer to nationalization of businesses in these "People's States" - for example, the proclamation of Chile as a People's State is accompanied by the nationalization of the D'Anconia copper mines.
On the other hand, the United States itself does not call itself "A People's State" and remains at least verbally committed to free enterprise - though making life increasingly difficult for entrepreneurs.
The visiting British Socialist who makes a brief appearance in the book calls the United States "The only country on Earth backward enough to permit private ownership of railroads".
All along the book there is the ongoing distinction between the "true" entrepreneurs, who seek to make profits purely by their own innovative efforts, and the false ones who benefit from government patronage and are counted among the "looters" - for example, the difference between Hank Rearden and his rival steel producer Orren Boyle. The economy of the book's present is contrasted with the capitalism of 19th century America, recalled as a lost Golden Age.
Atlas Shrugged: Plot Dagny Taggart, the Operating Vice President of railroad company Taggart Transcontinental, attempts to keep the company alive against collectivism and statism amid a sustained economic depression. While economic conditions worsen and government agencies enforce their control on successful businesses, people are often heard repeating the cryptic phrase "Who is John Galt?
It sarcastically means: "Don't ask important questions, because we don't have answers"; or more broadly, "What's the point? Her brother James, the railroad's president, seems to make irrational decisions, such as preferring to buy steel from Orren Boyle's unreliable Associated Steel, rather than Hank Rearden's Rearden Steel. Dagny attempts to ignore her brother and pursue her own policies. She soon realizes that d'Anconia is actually taking advantage of the investors by building worthless mines.
Despite the risk, Jim and his allies at Associated Steel invest a large amount of capital into building a railway in the region while ignoring the more crucial Rio Norte Line in Colorado, where the rival Phoenix-Durango Railroad competes by transporting supplies for Ellis Wyatt, who has revitalized the region after discovering large oil reserves.
Dagny minimizes losses on the San Sebastian Line by placing obsolete trains on the line, which Jim is forced to take credit for after the line is nationalized as Dagny predicted. Meanwhile, in response to the success of Phoenix-Durango, the National Alliance of Railroads, a group containing the railroad companies of the United States, passes a rule prohibiting competition in economically-prosperous areas while forcing other railroads to extend rail service to "blighted" areas of the country, with seniority going to more established railroads.
The ruling effectively ruins Phoenix-Durango, upsetting Dagny. Wyatt subsequently arrives in Dagny's office and presents her with a nine-month ultimatum: if she does not supply adequate rail service to his wells by the time the ruling takes effect, he will not use her service, effectively ensuring financial failure for Taggart Transcontinental. In Philadelphia, Hank Rearden, a self-made steel magnate, has developed an alloy called Rearden Metal, which is simultaneously lighter and stronger than conventional steel.
Rearden keeps its composition secret, sparking jealousy among competitors.
Dagny opts to use Rearden Metal in the Rio Norte Line, becoming the first major customer to purchase the product. As a result, pressure is put on Dagny to use conventional steel, but she refuses. Hank's career is hindered by his feelings of obligation to his wife, mother, and younger brother.
After Hank refuses to sell the metal to the State Science Institute, a government research foundation run by Dr. Robert Stadler, the Institute publishes a report condemning the metal without actually identifying problems with it. As a result, many significant organizations boycott the line. Although Stadler agrees with Dagny's complaints over the unscientific tone of the report, he refuses to override it.
Dagny also becomes acquainted with Wesley Mouch, a Washington lobbyist initially working for Rearden, whom he betrays, and later notices the nation's most capable business leaders abruptly disappearing, leaving their industries to failure. The most recent of these is Ellis Wyatt, who leaves his most successful oil well spewing petroleum and fire into the air later named "Wyatt's Torch".
Each of these men remains absent despite a thorough search by politicians. Having demonstrated the reliability of Rearden Metal in a railroad line named after John Galt, Hank and Dagny become lovers, and later discover, among the ruins of an abandoned factory, an incomplete motor that transforms atmospheric static electricity into kinetic energy, of which they seek the inventor.
Eventually, this search reveals the reason for business leaders' disappearances: the inventor of the motor is John Galt, who is leading an organized strike of business leaders against a society that demands that they be sacrificed.
Dagny's private plane crashes in their hiding place, an isolated valley known as Galt's Gulch. While she recovers from her injuries, she hears the strikers' explanations for the strike, and learns that Francisco is one of the strikers. Galt asks her to join the strike. Reluctant to abandon her railroad, Dagny leaves Galt's Gulch.
But Galt follows her to New York City, where he hacks into a national radio broadcast to deliver a long speech 70 pages in the first edition to explain the novel's theme and Rand's Objectivism.
As the government collapses, the authorities capture Galt, but he is rescued by his partisans, while New York City loses its electricity. The novel closes as Galt announces that they will later reorganize the world. Atlas Shrugged: Earlier plot lines In David Harriman published a massive volume called "Journals of Ayn Rand", based on hitherto unpublished Rand manuscripts, giving much information on the writing process of Atlas Shrugged as of other Rand books, and relating earlier story lines which were discarded and planned characters dropped from the final version.
Among other things, Harriman noted that Dagny Taggart and Hank Rearden were not originally meant to be lovers.
Rather, in the earlier version she was having an affair with a fellow railway executive, a rather flawed character, while he had a mistress who was as nasty as his wife - making his misery complete. In the original version Rearden also had a sister named Stacy, as bad as the rest of his family.
Rand originally planned to include a Catholic Priest, Father Amadeus, who would have had an important role as Jim Taggart's confessor. He was depicted as a sympathetic and well-meaning character, who finally meets John Galt and joins the Strike. Rand wrote quite extensive and detailed sections involving this character but ultimately dropped him. The Strikers are eventually to build a new and better world, and having a priest among them implied that the Catholic Church would have a role in this new world - which Rand did not want.
The above had the result that in the original version, James Taggart was a practicing Catholic and found religious excuses for his misdeeds, while in the final version he is not overtly religious and is not a member of any Church.
James Taggart's collapse - in the final version brought about through his direct confrontation with Galt - was originally intended to be caused by Father Amadeus telling him: "Sorry, Jim, I can't help you - I am on strike".